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Criminal Justice Research Guide

A guide to finding different types of resources for criminal justice classes.

APA style resources

Frequently asked questions about creating citations in APA 6th edition

Use citations to avoid plagiarism!

APA style requires you to use both in-text and Works Cited citations when writing your paper.

  1. In-text citations: short citations in the body of your paper readers use to identify sources the information originated from. Use in-text citations every time you: summarize, paraphrase, or quote your sources.
  2. Reference List page: long citations at the end of your paper readers use to find your sources

To create an in-text citation in APA Format, you need two things

  1. Author(s) last name
  2. Year published

Examples of in-text citations

One author

(Jones, 2015)

Two authors

(Hassel & Garcia, 2019)

Three to Five authors

The first time the citation appears in the paper, list all of the authors. Throughout the rest of the paper list the first author followed by et al.

1st time: (Hill, Brown, Miller & Davis, 2013)

Other times: (Hill et al., 2013)

Six or more authors

(Thompson et al., 2017)

 

Definitions:

et al. = "and others"

To create an in-text citation for a direct quote in APA Format, you need three things

  1. Author(s) last name
  2. Year published
  3. Page number

Examples of in-text citations

One author

( Jones, 2015, p.75)

Two authors

(Hassel & Garcia, 2019, pp. 42-43)

Three to Five authors

The first time the citation appears in the paper, list all of the authors. Throughout the rest of the paper list the first author followed by et al.

1st time: (Hill, Brown, Miller & Davis, 2013, p. 150)

Other times: (Hill et al., 2013, p. 150)

Six or more authors

(Thompson et al., 2017, pp. 115-116)

 

Definitions:

et al. = "and others"

p. = one-page

pp. = multiple pages

The author of a work is not always obvious, but that does not mean the author does not exist.

Group Authors

If a person is not listed as an author, companies, non-profit organizations, government agencies, and other institutions who sponsored the writing of the document are considered to be a group author.

For example

At first glances, this website appears to not have an author, however, the author is considered to be the U.S. Census Bureau. It's citation would look like:

In-text citation:

(U. S. Census Bureau, 2018)

Reference list citation:

U. S. Census Bureau. (2018, December 06). Broadband subscription rate for U.S. counties, Retrieved from  https://www.census.gov/library/visualizations/2018/comm/broadband-counties.html

If you can still not find an author after checking for group authors, then

In-text citation: Use the first few words of the reference list entry

Reference list: Use the title in place of an author.

The reference list page is a list of all your sources that appears at the end of your paper.

To create a reference list page you should...

  1. Start your reference list section on a new page at the end of your paper.
  2. Create a header with the title of your paper on the left side and page number on the right side.
  3. Center the title "References" at the top of your page.
  4. Alphabetize your sources by the first word that appears in the citation. Helpful Hint: In MS Word you can quickly put your sources in ABC order by going to home-paragraph-sort.
  5. Make your citations doubled space with a hanging indent. Helpful Hint: In MS Word you can quickly create hanging indents by highlighting the citation and change paragraph indentation to special- hanging.

You need the following information to create a citation for a peer-reviewed article.

  1. Author(s)
  2. Article title (Use sentence case to capitalize the article's title)
  3. Journal title
  4. Volume & issue number
  5. Date published
  6. Pages
  7. DOI or URL (If you have both a DOI and a URL, then use the DOI.)

Examples:

One Author

Elliott, C. (2017). Knowledge needs and the ‘savvy’ child: Teenager perspectives on banning food marketing to children. Critical Public Health, 27(4), 430–442. https://doi.org/10.1080/09581596.2016.1240356

Two Authors

Comer, D. R., & Holbrook, R. L., Jr. (2012). Getting behind the scenes of Fleetwood Mac’s Rumours: Using a documentary on the making of a music album to learn about task groups. Journal of Management Education, 36(4), 544–567. https://doi.org/10.1177/1052562911429779

Three to Seven Authors

Utz, S., Muscanell, N., & Khalid, C. (2015). Snapchat elicits more jealousy than Facebook: A comparison of Snapchat and Facebook use. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking18(3), 141–146. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2014.0479

More than Seven Authors

Diakoudi, G., Lanave, G., Capozza, P., Di Profio, F., Melegari, I., Di Martino, B., … Martella, V. (2019). Identification of a novel parvovirus in domestic cats. Veterinary Microbiology 228, 246–251. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.12.006

 

Definitions:

doi = digital object identifier

It is a unique number assigned to peer-reviewed articles when they are published.

Sentence case = Capitalize the first word and proper nouns. If there is a colon in the title capitalize this first word after the colon.

You need the following information to create a citation for a website.

  1. Author(s)
  2. Web page or article title
  3. Date information was created or last updated
  4. Format description listed in brackets. See (Lee, 2010).
  5. Web site's URL

Examples:

Website with one author

Lee, C. (2010, Nov. 18). How to cite something you found on a website in APA Style [Blog post]. Retrieved from: https://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2010/11/how-to-cite-something-you-found-on-a-website-in-apa-style.html

Website with a group author

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018, Feb. 6). Asthma attacks declining among U.S. children [Press release]. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2018/p0206-vs-childhood-asthma.html

Website with no author and no date

Words at play: 9 useful words you've probably never used but you might wonder how you got by so long without them. (n.d.) Retrieved from: https://www.merriam-webster.com/words-at-play/9-useful-obscure-words-youve-never-used/embox

Website with no date

Fikes, R. (n.d.). Tuskegee Airmen. Retrieved from: https://blackpast.org/aah/tuskegee-airmen 

Definitions:

n.d. = no date

You need the following information to create a citation for a YouTube video

  1. Author(s)
  2. The screen name of the person who uploaded the video
  3. Date the video was uploaded
  4. Name of video
  5. URL 

Examples:

YouTube video with one author

King, M. L. Jr. [NewsPoliticsInfo]. (2010, April, 4). Martin Luther King's last speech: ‘I've been to the mountaintop.’  [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Oehry1JC9Rk.

YouTube video with no author

Toy Reviews For You. (2015, Aug., 5). Chocolate pen candy craft Skyrocket Toys - Draw with chocolate candy! [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Oh_0FpYLPic.

You need the following information to create a citation for a book

  1. Author(s), Editor(s) & Translator(s) (If the book has them).
  2. Date published
  3. Title
  4. Edition or volume number (if the book has one)
  5. Publisher & Place of publication
  6. Retrieved from URL (If you a citing an ebook)

Examples:

Print book

Mullin, B., Hardy, S., & Sutton, W. (2014). Sport marketing (Fourth ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Ebook

Johnson, R., Rocheleau, A. M., & Martin, A. B. (2017). Hard time: A fresh look at understanding and reforming the prison (Fourth ed.). Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com

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